This is not a forecast. It is a summary of the wheat stem sawfly situation in Alberta in fall 2022.
The wheat stem sawfly survey was conducted in fall 2022 in southern and south-central Alberta. Fields with the designation of high percentage cutting were fewer in the 2022 survey than in the 2021 survey, but the number of fields with a moderate rating were more numerous. Cutting was found in all the municipalities traditionally known for wheat stem sawfly. In addition, damage of 10 to 25% cutting was found in the MD of Pincher Creek as well as on the south side of Kneehill county.
The wheat stem sawfly map is based on cut stem counts conducted in the fall after harvest of 2022 and the damage ratings are based on 81 fields in 20 municipalities. In each field, the number of wheat stem sawfly cut and the number of uncut stems are determined in a one meter of stubble in 4 locations.
Wheat stem sawfly 2022 survey (PDF, 2.4 MB)
Overall, sawfly is a real risk in 2023. The random nature of the survey means that individual fields may still have higher wheat stem sawfly populations than are indicated in the survey map.
Field locations denoted by a black dot had zero sawfly found in the survey.
The percent of stems cut by sawfly gives an indication of the number of reproductive adult sawflies that will emerge in late June through early July. Winter conditions have very little impact on sawfly populations and a high proportion of wheat stems cut in the fall will produce adults.
Female sawflies lay eggs inside grass and grassy crop stems; the eggs hatch and tunnel inside stems until the crop starts to dry down near harvest. As the crop starts to ripen the sawfly larva migrates to the stem base and cuts a notch most of the way through the stem, wind and/or wet weather cause the cut stems to break and the heads to fall to the ground. Feeding damage from the tunneling can result in hidden yield losses of 10 to 15% in each stem affected. Further yield losses can occur from lodging at harvest.
It is possible that population hot spots still exist in areas of lower risk, producers need to be aware of the potential risks in their own fields. Cutting levels of 10 to 15% or higher in the previous crop year indicate the need to consider planting non-host broad-leaf crops or oats to reduce sawfly losses. When populations are low it is typical to have small localized populations of sawfly that affect only one field or even just a portion of one field. At lower populations, wheat stem sawfly also tends to have a very strong edge effect where they migrate into the current year crop from the previous year stubble.
Parasitism can reduce populations and reduce the level of cutting. A parasitic wasp, Bracon cephi, has been shown to have significant impact on sawfly populations. The use of solid stem wheat varieties and the increase in parasitism are the major factors that lower sawfly populations in Alberta.
The 2022 wheat stem sawfly survey was carried out by the Alberta government with support from Farming Smarter and Chinook Applied Research Association – thank you for your contribution. Thank you David Giffen, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, for building the map.
- 2021 Survey Map (PDF, 1.4 MB)
- 2020 Survey Map (PDF, 808 KB)
- 2019 Survey Map (PDF, 452 KB)
- 2015 Survey Map (JPG, 156 KB)
- 2014 Survey Map (JPG, 97 KB)
- 2013 Survey Map (PDF, 533 KB)
- 2012 Survey Map (PDF, 94 KB)
- 2011 Survey Map (PDF, 107 KB)
- 2010 Survey Map (JPG, 97 KB)
- 2009 Survey Map (GIF, 109 KB)
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