Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) surveillance update: May 31, 2022
Like so many things lately, the 2021-22 CWD season faced many unexpected challenges. These included considerable field challenges during hunting seasons, frozen water pipes at 2 of 3 labs where CWD sampling occurred, supply chain issues with receiving essential lab materials, and of course, overarching concerns and limitations associated with the COVID pandemic. However, despite these challenges, the CWD surveillance program delivered test results for over 11,000 heads submitted to the program.
We heartily acknowledge and thank all those who help make this program such a success and look forward to your continued support.
In 2021-22, we received 11,086 heads of which 10,909 were suitable for CWD testing. The disease was detected in 1,156 wild deer and elk (10.4% overall: 984 mule deer (594 males, 390 females), 164 white-tails (134 males, 30 females), and 8 elk (1 male, 7 females). CWD was not detected in moose in Alberta this year. A map and summary tables of the 2021-22 results are provided in the CWD Map and Statistics section below.
Looking more closely at the data for 2021-22, CWD was found in:
- 14.4% of 6,816 mule deer
- 4.4% of 3,738 white-tailed deer
- 2.4% of 333 elk (primarily from CFB Suffield)
- 0 of 173 moose
- 0 of 16 other wild cervids, most of which were caribou
Of the 10,501 deer for which gender/sex was reported, CWD was detected in:
- 22.1% of 2,685 male mule deer
- 9.5% of 4,097 female mule deer
- 5.4% of 2,500 male whitetails
- 2.5% of 1,224 female whitetails
CWD continues a steady progression westward, particularly along the Bow river corridor northwest of Calgary. It was detected for the first time in ten WMUs on the western and northern perimeter of the CWD area (104, 216, 224, 302, 314, 502, 506, 510, 514, and 936).
For 2021-22 the basic program was much the same as in the past. In order to better support game management decisions, surveillance is focused on designated areas along the eastern border and along the northern and western perimeter of the CWD affected area (see the map on our CWD Information for Hunters page). Mandatory areas on the Alberta/Saskatchewan border allow deer managers to track the trajectory and outcome of disease in areas where CWD has existed the longest and is likely to have its greatest effect on deer populations over time. Mandatory areas along the northern and western edge of areas where CWD is enzootic (established) are used to track the continued spread of this invasive disease in our deer populations.
As in previous years during the rifle seasons, 24-hour freezers are placed strategically throughout the mandatory areas to make it easier for hunters to drop off heads for testing. Instructions and materials are provided at each freezer. Please remember to fill out both sides of the green CWD labels with all the requested information, and remember to keep the bottom portion of the label as it has the CWD number associated with the head you submitted. Also, please use one label for each head you submit but DO NOT take extra labels from the freezers. Leave them for other hunters to use.
Note that the head drop-off freezers are only available from mid-October to mid-December. Deer heads can also be dropped off at Fish and Wildlife offices throughout the year during office hours. However, there may be COVID-19 limitations and hunters are encouraged to call an office to determine local head submission options. See page 13 of the 2021 Alberta Guide to Hunting Regulations for office locations and phone numbers. For further information, see: Chronic Wasting Disease – Information for Hunters.
All hunters who submit a head receive their test results in an email using the email address in their AlbertaRELM account. Hunters without an email address in their account are phoned only if the animal is positive for CWD.
The total number of CWD cases detected in wild deer in Alberta since September 2005 is 4,741.
Free CWD replacement licences no longer available
The original intent in offering replacement licences was to encourage hunters to return to areas of Alberta where CWD was first detected. However, hunter interest and harvest in the CWD area remains high and free replacement licences are no longer necessary.
Initially, very few harvested deer had CWD and thus very few replacement licences were offered. However, with increased prevalence and distribution of CWD, this is no longer the case.
Increasing numbers of hunters with a CWD replacement licence are creating a disproportionate harvest opportunity and advantage over those hunters who must build priority points to access a licence, particularly for antlered mule deer.
CWD occurs in pockets of localized deer, so hunters harvesting from the same small population each year are more likely to harvest an infected deer and gain access to annual free replacement licences. As the number of CWD cases increases over time, the number of replacement licences becomes disproportionate to the number of licences available to individuals who apply for draws, and limits the diversity of opportunity for broader populations of hunters who wish to have that opportunity.
CWD and human health
While there are no known cases of CWD in humans, health authorities recommend precautions. Additional information is available at: CWD and Public Health.
Thank you to hunters, guides and landowners
It is hard to believe we have been tracking this disease in wild deer in Alberta for over 20 years. Alberta began CWD hunter surveillance in 1998 and has one of the best continuous datasets documenting the occurrence and patterns of CWD in wild cervids, specifically in prairie / parkland ecosystems. The continued support of hunters, guides and landowners is the basis for the strength of our surveillance data.
The success of the CWD surveillance program relies heavily on participation by hunters, guides, and landowners to ensure a successful harvest that provides heads to be tested. We heartily acknowledge and thank all those who helped make the program so successful and look forward to your continued support.
In order to track chronic wasting disease in our deer populations, submission of deer heads for CWD testing is mandatory in specified WMUs in designated areas in Alberta. Submit deer heads for CWD testing during rifle seasons at any of the 24-hour freezers in Edmonton, Calgary, and across eastern Alberta.
Note that the deer head drop-off freezers are only available from mid-October to mid-December. However, CWD surveillance in Alberta is a year-round program and suitable frozen deer heads can be submitted for testing at a Fish and Wildlife office throughout the year. Phone ahead for office hours and drop-off locations. See page 13 of the 2021 Alberta Guide to Hunting Regulations for office locations and phone numbers. The guide can be found at: Alberta Regulations.
Please also note that for biosafety and logistical reasons, we are unable to return heads to a hunter. If you wish to keep any part of the head or antlers, you should remove it before submitting the remaining portion for CWD testing. Additional information about preparing and submitting heads can be found at: Chronic Wasting Disease – Information for Hunters.
Note that hunters receive negative test results directly at the email address associated with their individual AlbertaRELM account. The email process is the only notification hunters receive when their animal is negative for CWD.
Starting in 2019: Hunters who harvest a CWD positive deer are sent an email, as above. Hunters without email contact in their AlbertaRELM account are notified by phone.
Patterns of CWD in Alberta
There are significant overall patterns of disease occurrence in Alberta. CWD continues to occur primarily in mule deer in comparison to white-tailed deer despite testing large numbers of both species. Similarly males are more likely to be infected than females.
Analyses of previous data determined the weighted CWD occurrence in Alberta is:
- Mule Deer: male 1.00 female 0.4
- White-tailed Deer: male 0.3 female 0.1
Thus male mule deer are the most likely, and female white-tailed deer the least likely to be infected with CWD.
The geographic distribution of CWD is clustered in some WMUs but continues to expand westward.
- Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta by wildlife management unit
This record in the Open Publications Portal contains the following reports:
- CWD in Alberta by WMU 2005 - 2021
- CWD in Alberta by WMU 2005 - 2020
- CWD in Alberta by WMU 2005 - 2019
- CWD in Alberta by WMU 2005 - 2018
- CWD in Alberta by WMU 2005 - 2017
In conjunction with the University of Alberta, we used Alberta’s surveillance data to model the risk of CWD in male mule deer.
We looked at three periods:
- a seven-year period since the first case (2005-2012)
- more recent data (2013-2017)
- the cumulative risk over all years showing the progressive increase of risk from 2005 to 2017
View the CWD risk report at: Chronic wasting disease change in risk over time in male mule deer – 2005 to 2017.
The following map tracks the year where CWD was first detected in select Wildlife Management Units (WMUs): Chronic wasting disease in Alberta by year of first detection.
The prevalence (% infected) of CWD in male mule deer continues to increase in Alberta. For details, see: Prevalence (% infected) of CWD in male mule deer – 2010 and 2019.
The finding of CWD in a moose near the South Saskatchewan River valley in 2012 is the first such case identified in Canada: CWD in Moose in Alberta.
Specific information about the CWD hunter surveillance program is provided at: Chronic Wasting Disease – Information for Hunters
- CWD surveillance is focused on the Alberta/Saskatchewan border; however, hunter-killed deer (and elk) are accepted from anywhere in the province (as in all previous years)
2020 Final fall CWD surveillance results
In 2020 we tested 8,905 heads:
- CWD was detected in 927 wild deer and elk (10.4% overall: 755 mule deer (521 males, 234 females), 167 white-tails (133 males, 34 females) and 5 elk (1 male, 4 females). CWD was not detected in moose in Alberta this year.
- Looking more closely at the data for 2020, CWD was found in:
- 14.8% of 5,0889 mule deer
- 5.0% of 3,357 white-tailed deer
- 1.8% of 285 elk (primarily from CFB Suffield)
- 0 of 135 moose
- 0 of 39 other wild cervids, 22 of which were caribou
- In the 8,429 deer for which gender/sex was reported, CWD was detected in:
- 20.5% of 2,537 male mule deer
- 9.2% of 2,542 female mule deer
- 5.3% of 2,497 male whitetails
- 4.0% of 853 female whitetails
- Patterns in the data in 2020:
- CWD continues to spread westward, particularly along the Oldman and Bow river corridors.
- CWD was detected for the first time in:
- 7 WMUs in the southwest (106, 108, 110, 112, 304, 305 and 310).
- WMUs 208, 210, 214, 220 and 246, which established the new leading western edge of CWD in central Alberta.
- No northward expansion of CWD was detected this year in Alberta.
To learn more about CWD Surveillance in Alberta, see: CWD Surveillance and Response.
For past CWD surveillance results and a general timeline of CWD in Alberta, see: CWD History in Alberta.
CWD map and statistics
- Map: Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta
This record in the Open Publications Portal Includes:
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2021)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2020)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2019)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2005 to 2018)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2005 to 2017)
- Statistics: Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta: surveillance summaries
This record in the Open Publications Portal includes:
- Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta: surveillance summary (2021)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta: surveillance summary (2020)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta: surveillance summary (2019)
- Statistics: Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta
This record in the Open Publications Portal includes:
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2018)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild cervids in Alberta (2017)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild deer and a moose in Alberta (2011-2016)
- Chronic Wasting Disease in wild deer in Alberta (2005 to 2010)
News releases and information bulletins
- Nineteen new cases of chronic wasting disease in wild deer (April 1, 2011)
- Eight new cases of chronic wasting disease detected in wild deer (March 20, 2009)
- Opportunities abound for Alberta hunters in 2007 guide/Alberta continues program to manage chronic wasting disease (July 16, 2007)
- Testing completed for chronic wasting disease winter program (May 8, 2007)
- Expanded chronic wasting disease testing discovers three more cases (April 5, 2007)
- Alberta takes action on chronic wasting disease in wild deer (February 22, 2007)
- Three more cases of chronic wasting disease found in wild deer (December 21, 2006)
- Alberta hunters asked to assist with CWD control efforts (September 15, 2006)
- Winter efforts to control CWD in wild deer in Alberta wrap up (April 18, 2006)
- Winter tests find one more case of CWD in wild deer in Alberta (March 3, 2006)
- Four more cases of CWD found in wild deer in Alberta (February 17, 2006)
- First case of CWD found in wild deer killed by hunter in Alberta (December 9, 2005)
- No chronic wasting disease found in latest culled deer (November 4, 2005)
- Chronic wasting disease found in two more wild deer in Alberta (October 3, 2005)
- Chronic wasting disease found in a wild deer in Alberta (September 2, 2005)
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