Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, or BSE, is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of cattle. It is one member of a family of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Other TSEs include scrapie in sheep and goats, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in deer, elk and moose, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in humans.

BSE is a provincially reportable disease for cattle and yaks.