Anthrax is an acute bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The source of infection is through exposure to a contaminated environment. Virtually all animals are susceptible to anthrax, but herbivores including cattle, sheep, goats and horses are especially susceptible. Omnivores such as pigs and humans are somewhat less susceptible, while carnivores such as dogs, cats, wolves and bears are relatively resistant. Birds are least susceptible. Anthrax has been reported in most Canadian provinces, including Alberta.

Anthrax is a provincially notifiable disease for all animals, including companion animals and wild animals.