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Many of the first settlers to Alberta were French-Canadian. Brought by fur traders, French was in fact the first European language spoken in Alberta. These French origins are still evident today and, according to the 2016 Census data, more than 418,000 (or 10.5%) of Albertans are of French or French-Canadian descendants.
The Alberta's Francophone Heritage website samples these individual and community stories, from the era of the fur trade to contemporary Francophone communities confidently embracing the future.
From the Francophone Community Profile of Alberta:
Grande Cache, Miette, Lac La Biche: at the time of the voyageurs, the vast spaces west of the Great Lakes were for the most part given French place names. French also predominated at Fort Edmonton, constructed in 1795 by the Hudson’s Bay Company. A century later, a great wave of migration brought settlers of many origins to Alberta, seeking fertile land and prosperity in the West. French then became a secondary language. In 1892, when the Legislative Assembly made English the only language of debate and instruction, local priests undertook a vast recruitment campaign in Quebec and New England. This helped to swell the ranks of the original Francophone settlements in the province, and gave birth to new settlements in the northern regions.
A network of French schools developed with the Church’s help. Nevertheless, at the same time, the government required that all compulsory school subjects be taught in English. The Association canadienne-française de l’Alberta (ACFA), created in 1926 and supported by La Survivance (1928), took on the dual task of providing bilingual teachers for the French schools and ensuring the effective teaching of their mother tongue. The cooperative movement in Alberta owes its growth to these two institutions.
Protected by linguistic arrangements made when the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created in 1905, public Catholic education in French continued up until the 1930s. It was not until 1964 that an amendment to the Schools Act permitted teaching in French for an hour per day. Franco-Albertans gained control over their schools in 1993. The Government of Alberta established a Francophone Affairs secretariat in 1999.
See also: Timeline – Alberta and the Francophonie
Alberta's Francophone communities
Alberta has approximately 2,000 communities and natural sites with French-influenced names, such as:
- Grande Prairie
- Lac des Arcs
Over the years, these names have transformed into English approximations. For example, Grande Prairie retains the French spelling but is anglicized as "Grand" Prairie in pronunciation.
Some early Francophone communities were ministered by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI), a prominent religious congregation at the time, who named these communities in honour of patron saints. Other communities were named after the wildlife or geography of a specific region, or after prominent local French-speaking individuals.
Four Alberta municipalities are officially bilingual:
- City of Beaumont
- Town of Legal
- Town of Falher
- Hamlet of Plamondon
These and 13 other municipalities listed below form the Alberta Bilingual Municipalities Association (ABMA).
- Municipal district of Bonnyville
- Town of Bonnyville
- Village of Donnelly
- City of Grande Prairie
- Village of Girouxville
- Lac La Biche County
- Town of Morinville
- Town of McLennan
- Northern Sunrise County
- Town of Saint-Paul
- Smoky Lake County
- Town of Smoky Lake
- Smoky River County
See also: Map of Alberta Municipalities with Thriving Francophonie (PDF, 1.6 MB)
French-language population growth
French is the mother tongue of 1 in 5 Canadians and approximately 86,705 Albertans (2% of the population).
According to 2016 Census information, Alberta's French mother tongue (Francophone) population is among the fastest-growing French-speaking populations in Canada. The francophone population grew by approximately 27% between 2006 and 2016. Excluding Quebec, Alberta has the third largest minority Francophone population after Ontario and New Brunswick.
In areas where the Francophone population is concentrated – St. Paul, Bonnyville, Peace River, Calgary and Edmonton to name a few – French is spoken at home and a greater number of services in French are available.
Bilingual population growth
French is a common second language for Canadians because it is widely used and accessible through education, media and Canadian culture.
This is true also in Alberta, where French is the most common language spoken after English and the number of bilingual residents is rising steadily. According to the 2016 Census, Alberta ranked 5th in bilingual population size: 268,615 Albertans spoke French in 2016 compared to 225,085 in 2006, an increase of more than 19%.
Changing economic and social relations are creating a demand for enhanced skills, including competencies in languages other than English, in an ever-increasing number of entrepreneurial, professional and technical fields.
One in 3 Alberta students are learning French, making it the most commonly learned language in Alberta schools.
More than 200,000 Alberta students were enrolled in French-language programs in 2017-18, well ahead of the next language, with a little over 5,000 enrolled in Spanish-language programs. This included:
- 8,403 students enrolled in Francophone schools
- 45,543 French immersion students
- 146,439 students enrolled in a French as a Second Language course
The overall number of Alberta students enrolled in French-language programs is rising steadily. Enrolment in Francophone schools, for example, has increased by over 260% in Alberta since 1996.
Symbol of Distinction
The Franco-Albertan flag, created in 1982 by French-speaking Alberta youth, is blue, white and rose. In June 2017, the Province of Alberta adopted it as the first Symbol of Distinction under the Emblems of Alberta Act. See Emblems of Alberta for the meaning of the flag's colours and symbols.
On March 1, 2018, the Alberta government proclaimed March as the annual Mois de la francophonie albertaine (Alberta Francophonie Month). The month of March provides an opportunity to highlight the vibrancy and energy the Francophonie brings to Alberta.
There is no better time to celebrate the diversity of Alberta’s Francophonie than during March, which already attracts many events and activities as part of the national initiative, Rendez-vous de la Francophonie.
- Infographics: The Francophonie in Alberta
- Map of Alberta Municipalities with Thriving Francophonie (PDF, 1.06 MB)
- Timeline: Alberta and the Francophonie
- Saint-Joachim Roman Catholic Church
- La Société historique francophone de l’Alberta, History of the Franco-Albertan community – French only
- Peel's Prairie Provinces: La Survivance/Le Franco – French only