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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a GHG that comes from burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, through activities like driving a car or creating electricity. For large stationary sources of CO2, like an oil refinery, use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) can help prevent these emissions from entering the atmosphere. Captured CO2 is injected into carefully selected sites deep underground for safe, permanent storage.
Alberta has committed $1.24 billion through 2025 to two commercial-scale carbon capture and storage projects. Both projects will help reduce the CO2 emissions from the oil sands and fertilizer sectors and reduce GHG emissions by 2.76 million tonnes each year. This is equivalent to the yearly emissions of 600,000 vehicles. Both projects must submit annual reports to the knowledge sharing program ensuring public access to the technical information and project learnings.
CO2 is separated and collected from emissions produced by industrial activity, then compressed and transported to a storage site and injected into carefully selected, secure underground geological formations that can safely and permanently store the gas. An illustration of this can be found in the CCS fact sheet . After injection activity ends at the site, the site is tightly sealed and monitored to ensure there are no safety or health risks to the public or to the environment.
Statoil developed the first commercial-scale CCS project in the world in 1996 just off the coast of Norway. Oil and gas producers have decades of experience injecting CO2 into oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.
Monitoring, measurement and verification
Monitoring and measurement are the surveillance activities necessary for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of a CO2 storage project. Verification refers to the comparison of measured and predicted performance.
Storage sites are analysed and monitored:
- before (to establish a baseline)
- during (reporting safety, measures of CO2 in the ground air and water and tracks injection rates and volumes)
- after (for decades, to confirm it is performing as expected) large-scale CO2 storage projects to ensure the area surrounding the site is unaffected and the CO2 is safely contained in the storage site
Types of monitoring and measurement:
- Subsurface: monitors the movement of the CO2 in the storage site and the stability of the cap rock.
- Near surface: monitors soil, well water, and groundwater to ensure CO2 is not leaking.
- Atmospheric: monitors CO2 levels in the air around the site.
Legislation and policy
Many aspects of carbon capture and storage projects are covered by Alberta’s existing oil and gas regulations, but the following acts and regulations promote the safe and effective use of carbon capture and storage technology:
- Carbon Capture and Storage Funding Act
- Carbon Capture and Storage Funding Regulation (funding for education and the assessment)
- Mines and Minerals Act, as amended by the Carbon Capture and Storage Statutes Amendment Act, 2010 (allows the government to assume long-term liability for storage sites, the Act makes it mandatory for carbon capture and storage operators to contribute to the Post-Closure Stewardship Fund. The provincial government will use this fund for ongoing monitoring and any required maintenance and remediation. This Act also clarifies that the Government of Alberta is the owner of pore space, but does not change ownership of mine and mineral resources in any way. The Carbon Capture and Storage Statutes Amendment Act, 2010, also amended the Surface Rights Act, Public Lands Act and the Oil and Gas Conservation Act.)
- Carbon Sequestration Tenure Regulation
A Regulatory Framework Assessment took place from 2011 to 2013, in which more than 100 global experts on carbon capture and storage, including representatives from industry, environmental groups, scholars, and government worked on a review of existing regulations. The final report of the findings includes over 70 conclusions and recommendations that continue to inform the ongoing development of the carbon capture and storage regulatory framework in Alberta to ensure the safest and most environmentally responsible regulatory environment for carbon capture and storage.
Carbon Sequestration Tenure
Moving forward, government will issue carbon sequestration rights through a competitive process, enabling the development of carbon storage hubs. More details are available at links below.
CCS beyond Alberta
- Atlas of Canada Clean Energy Resources and Projects (CERP)
CERP is a map populated by Natural Resources Canada to show where projects are located and how much clean energy resource potential exists across the country. It includes CCS facilities and distributed generation capacity across Canada.
- Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum
A partnership of governments focused on developing technologies for CCS through collaborative efforts that address key technical, economic and environmental obstacles.
- CCS Association
An industry-led group that promotes CCS activities in the UK and elsewhere.
- Global CCS Institute
The institute announced by the Australian Government in 2008 aims to accelerate the worldwide commercial deployment of at-scale CCS.
- International CCS Knowledge Centre
The International CCS Knowledge Centre, based out of Regina, SK, is focused on large-scale applications of CCS on industrial applications and thermal power plants while optimitizing the use of CCS through cost reduction initiatives and technological advancements.
- International Energy Agency (IEA)
The International Energy Agency (IEA) is made up of 30 member countries and 8 association countries and has extensive information regarding carbon capture, utilization and storage.
- Norway - Ministry of Petroleum and Energy - CCS
CCS is a central part of the Norwegian government’s policy on energy and climate change.
- Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership
The partnership is a multiyear collaboration of over 80 U.S. and Canadian stakeholders to lay the groundwork for practical and environmentally sound CO2 sequestration projects in the heartland of North America.
- UK Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Research Centre
Founded in 2012, the UK CCS Research Centre, with 300+ academic members, collaborates with CCS organizations world-wide on CCS research.
Connect with Carbon Capture and Storage:
Hours: 8:15 am to 4:30 pm (open Monday to Friday, closed statutory holidays)
Email: [email protected]
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